New fragments of the Qumran scrolls have surfaced in the US
28 new fragments of Dead Sea scrolls have been purchased from collectors by three American institutions in recent years, Live Science reported. Their contents have not yet been revealed.
According to the Live Science website, 28 fragments were placed in the hands of representatives of three American institutionsów scrollsów from Qumran. The purchased scrolls are now being studied by specialistsów. Scientific publications on them are expected to appear next year.
Experts suspect that at least some of them may be fake artifacts. At least 45 fragments have appeared in the United States over the past two decadesów coilóin the Dead Sea. The unclear history of the scrollsów allows speculation that someone may still possess fragments of scrolls previously unknown to the scientific communityów.
There had already been prób sale of false scrollsów. Anonymous individuals demanded huge sums of money for the exhibits, whichóre alleged to have come from Khalil Iskander Shahin – a Bethlehem antiquities dealerów, from któhe whole story began.
He was the first to come into possession of the priceless ancient scrollsów just after World War II. He purchased them from a Bedouinów, whichóers, in order to increase profit, cut the manuscripts into pieces. Therefore, the number of fragmentaryów, które the entire find. It should also be added that some of the caves in the Qumran area were looted before archaeologists arrived there.
The Bethlehem trader also used the name Kondo, które taken over by his son William. In an interview with Live Science reporters, William admitted that his family sold pieces of the manuscript to private collectorsów, however, cast doubt on the number of them appearing on the market. Which is not to say that private collectors did not behave similarly to Bedouinów. They could rów also cut his fragments into even smaller pieces. The trader’s son also pointed out that the scrolls have changed hands many times, and no way toób now figure out where the fragments sold by his family are located.
28 unpublished scrollsów
Nine of the 28 scrollsów, whichóre recently appeared on the market in the US is in the hands of Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Forth Worth, Texas. Another four are located at Azusa Pacific University in Azusa, California. The rest, or 15 recently sold manuscriptsów, o któr reported by an anonymous trader through the Les Enluminures company, are in the possession of institutions thatóra has so far not revealed its name. Company representatives refuse to comment until the institution reveals itself.
Specialists called in institutions thatóre acquired previously unpublished texts to disclose as much information about them as possible. – Seven years ago we acquired nine scrollsóin from the Dead Sea. We signed a contract for their publication. Hopefully, it will be published next year – said Professor Ryan Stokes of Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, an expert in Old Testament studies. Seminary just after purchasing the manuscriptów revealed in a published announcement that the scrolls contain excerpts from the Biblical Books of Exodus, Leviticus, Daniel, Psalmów and Powtóof the Law.
About the imminent publication of their textsóin mówi also the dean of the Faculty of Theology at Azusa Pacific University Robert Duke. The manuscripts, whichóre found in the university’s possession include writings from the biblical Books of Daniel, Leviticus and Deuteronomyóthrown Law. However, what will happen to the remaining fragments is unknown. It is uncertain whether the 15th fragmentóin sold by Les Enluminures will be examined and published.
Dead Sea scrolls
Shortly after World War II, three Bedouin boysów following a flock of kóOf and sheep discovered a cave in which theóThe researchers found jugs containing ancient Hebrew scrolls of the. The manuscripts were cut into pieces and put up for sale in Jerusalem bazaars. By chance, one of such piecesów ended up in the hands of an antiquities dealerów of Bethlehem, whichóry contacted a professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem to assess the value of the find.
The professor immediately realized what he was dealing with and asked the trader to provide more fragmentsów. In this wayób three complete scrolls came into the hands of the scholar. After the valuable find was redeemed, the manuscripts were immediately analyzedów. The first two complete scrolls contained the biblical texts of the Book of Isaiah and a commentary on the Book of Habakkuk written in Old Hebrew script. The third contained a previously unknown text depicting an apocalyptic war between the forces of light and the forces of darkness known today as the Zwój Wars.
In the cave discovered by the boysów there were seven scrollsów. After rótions resulting from the greed of traders and tensions over the loss of Britain’s mandate over Palestine, all the scrolls ended up in Israel. The last four were purchased thanks to an announcement published in the „The Wall Street Journal”.
A total of 11 caves containing ancient manuscripts were discovered between 1947 and 1956. Some of the caves were discovered by scientistsóin, but with the contents of those found by Bedouinów happened the same as with the manuscripts from the first cave. They were cut into pieces and sold in bazaars. On top of that, some of the caves had already been looted. It should also be noted that the tooth of time has made its mark and someóre scrolls were found in terrible condition.
The 12th grotto at Qumran discovered in 2017
Seventy years after the discovery of the first cave, archaeologists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have announced the discovery of another, the 12th cave near Qumran. However, the researchers did not come across any new manuscripts in it. They believe the cave was looted in the mid-20th century.
Behind the discovery are the aforementioned archaeologists from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and their colleagues from the Israel Antiquities Authority under the auspices of the state administration.
In addition to the remains of broken jugsów, experts came across a small scrap of parchment. – There is no doubt that we have discovered another cave, but unfortunately there are no more manuscripts in itów – said in February the head of the excavation, Oren Gutfeld. The 12th grotto also found skóThe strips used to bind the scrollsów and pieces of material in whichóre were wrapped. Similar artifacts were found in the earlier 11 caves.
The age of the found scrap of parchment and the remains of the vessels was determined, whichóry points to the first century AD. It is the same age as the other scrollsów. – Until now, it was assumed that the Dead Sea scrolls were only found in 11 caves at Qumran. Now there is no doubt that we have found the 12th cave – will highlight Gutfed. The scientist added that there may be more caves containing the scrolls.
On a small piece of parchment found in 12 caves, there is no text at all. However, researchers want to conduct a thorough analysis, whichóra will show whether the scrap contains writing that has faded with time.